FuelEU Maritime will come into force from 2025. The new EU regulation mandates a gradual reduction in the greenhouse gas intensity of the fuels used by the shipping industry. A reduction of 2% is planned by 2025, rising to up to 80% by 2050.

As ship managers are the compliance-responsible party, BSM and its specialised emission compliance teams are preparing and implementing all necessary measures for its ship management clients to meet the upcoming requirements and to support with additional consulting and value-added services.

BSM is developing a FuelEU Simulator and a FuelEU Dashboard to be integrated into its PAL ship management software to visualize all FuelEU Maritime-relevant data and assure reliable forecasts and calculations. Thus, users are enabled to simulate the anticipated GHG intensity, compliance balance, and FuelEU penalties for the forthcoming years spanning from 2025 to 2050 with the data entered.

In addition, BSM offers its customers qualified and reliable guidance and advice on suitable fuels and compliance technology.

Learn more about FuelEU Maritime

  • What is the aim of the FuelEU Maritime regulation?

    FuelEU Maritime seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the shipping sector by promoting the use of cleaner fuels and energy. It aims to decarbonize the maritime transport sector by imposing yearly maximum limits on a ship’s greenhouse gas intensity. These targets will become more ambitious over time, reflecting technological advancements and the increased production of renewable and low-carbon fuels.

    The EU-wide mandate is intended to ensure that the market for sustainable maritime fuels expands and shall provide legal certainty for ship operators and fuel producers, stimulating the large-scale production of sustainable maritime fuels and helping to reduce the price gap between fossil fuels and sustainable alternatives.

    FuelEU Maritime is part of the European Commission’s ”Fit for 55” legislative package, aiming to deliver on the European Green Deal and make Europe climate-neutral by 2050.

  • What does the FuelEU Maritime regulation prescribe?

    The regulation sets targets for reducing the yearly average greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of the energy used by a ship, or, crucially, by a fleet or pool of ships.

    FuelEU rules mandate that shipping reduces GHG intensity for energy used on board a ship by 2% from 2025, 6% from 2030, 14.5% from 2035, 31% from 2040, 62% from 2045, and 80% from 2050. The reduction targets are all set against 2020 levels.

    Additionally, the regulation introduces a zero-emission requirement at berth, necessitating the use of onshore power supply (OPS) or alternative zero-emission technologies in ports by passenger ships and container ships. This will be compulsory in most EU ports from 2030, with some exceptions, and in even more EU ports from 2035. This measure aims to mitigate air pollution emissions in ports, which are often close to densely populated areas.

  • What is the scope of FuelEU Maritime?

    The new targets will apply to ships above 5,000 GT and to all energy used on board in or between EU ports (100% of intra-EU energy consumption), as well as to half of the energy used on voyages where the departure or arrival port is outside of the EU bloc (50% of extra-EU energy consumption).

  • Which emissions are taken into account by FuelEU Maritime?

    The targets will cover CO2, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions on a full Well-to-Wake calculation throughout the fuels’ lifecycle.

  • Are there any exceptions to the shore power obligation?

    There are exceptions to the shore power requirement for:

    1.Port stays of less than two hours

    2.When ships use zero-emission technologies on board

    3.Unscheduled port call due to safety

    4.Unavailable OPS connection in port

    5.Incompatible equipment in port

    6.Risk to grid stability


    8.When requested by authorities for maintenance/ inspection.

    9.There is a limit on exemptions (4), (5) and (6) from 1 January 2035, to 10% of port call or a maximum of 10 port calls during the reporting period, whichever is lower.

  • Which fuels are taken into account at FuelEU Maritime and how?

    FuelEU Maritime takes into account all fuels and energy sources used onboard. The fuels currently mentioned by the regulation are fossil fuels, biofuels, and renewable fuels of non-biological origin (RFNBO). It goes without saying that fossil fuels score worst in the GHG intensity assessment. Blending of low-carbon fuels, especially biofuels (not produced from food or feed crops) and RFNBO, with fossil fuels will therefore be predominant, especially in the beginning.

    As is well known, LNG is a fossil natural gas, so it is not climate neutral. However, by adding liquid biomethane (LBM) or liquid e-methane (LEM) to LNG, the carbon footprint can be reduced without having to change the engine technology. Ultimately, vessels running on LNG could run 100% on LBM or LEM without any modifications.

    Biofuels are set to become the main alternative fuel choice, replacing liquefied natural gas, according to a survey from 2023. Nearly 60% of around 500 respondents suggested they were considering using biofuels within the next five years, followed by 48% for wind and 48% for hydrogen-derived fuels, compared with 60% for LNG in 2021, according to the surveyed shipowners, charterers and financiers conducted by energy and transport law firm Watson Farley & Williams.

    This trend is already clearly evident. The uptake of biofuel-blended marine fuels has increased in recent years, with volumes at the Port of Rotterdam reaching 790,000 tonnes in the past year, up from 301,000 tonnes in 2021, according to figures from the port authority.

  • How is the GHG intensity of the fuels used determined?

    The GHG intensity of each fuel is calculated based on the emission factors determined for the Well-to-Tank and Tank-to-Wake parts, respectively, and the sum of those values is the GHG intensity of the fuel.

    Important documents to support FuelEU regulation are the Bunker Fuel Delivery Note (BDN) along with the Proof of Sustainability Document of the fuel which confirms to the RED (Renewable Energy Directive) compliance as per the “Fit for 55” package.

  • Will sufficient low-carbon fuels and infrastructure be available?

    Indeed, the availability and scalability of low-carbon fuels will be a challenge. While alternative fuels such as biofuels are increasingly being used in shipping, the production and distribution infrastructure for these fuels is still underdeveloped.

    To counteract this, the EU climate protection package “Fit for 55” includes the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Regulation (AFIR). This regulation requires EU ports to develop shore power and infrastructure for alternative fuels.

    The EU commission has acknowledged that the increased costs of sustainable fuels are a key factor affecting the competitiveness of shipping and has committed to considering regulatory measures to foster the production of these fuels.

    To reduce competition for sustainable fuels, it is planned to give shipping priority access to low-emission fuels such as advanced biofuels and e-fuels over sectors that have access to other decarbonisation solutions.

    In this context, it is expected that international shipping will move from “spot bunkering” to “fuel supply contracts” for the supply of fuel products with specific GHG intensity. It is not expected that all ports will have each required fuel available “on spot”.

  • Who is the responsible party for FuelEU Maritime compliance? Is it the owner as with EU ETS?

    With EU ETS, the registered owner is indeed the responsible party on a company basis. However, the ship manager (ISM company, DoC holder) can take over the responsibility of compliance from the owner through a mutually signed mandate agreement.

    FuelEU Maritime is different, as the ISM company/ DoC holder is always the responsible party on a vessel basis. This means that if a ship is managed by a third-party ship manager, he is invariably responsible for FuelEU Maritime compliance management.

  • What are the specific challenges faced by ship managers under FuelEU Maritime?

    Ship managers are tasked with verifying that the fuel delivered to vessels adheres to the specifications outlined by owners or charterers. They, along with their crews, are responsible for ensuring proper fuel handling and using the correct fuel at appropriate times when different qualities are on board.

    However, FuelEU Maritime focuses not only on the verification and handling of fuel once it's on board but also on the fuel's origin, lifecycle, and the supplier and procurement decisions that lead to its delivery to the vessel. Ship managers have no influence over these aspects, as fuel is typically ordered by charterers or ship owners.

    The same applies to other FuelEU Maritime-relevant measures. Ship managers have no influence on the type of propulsion installed on board the managed vessels, whether that be sail, solar, fuel cell or other installations. This decision rests solely with the ship owner.

    Despite this questionable regulation, it is not to be expected that the responsibility will be adapted in near future. FuelEU Maritime is an EU Regulation that cannot simply be changed, as was the case with EU ETS, which is an EU Directive. Nonetheless, industry stakeholders, including the ship manager association InterManager, BIMCO, and national shipowners' associations, are currently lobbying EU regulatory bodies to align FuelEU Maritime with EU ETS. However, this process is expected to be protracted. It's important to note that ship managers will become the responsible party under FuelEU Maritime as of 1 January 2025. Thus, preparations are crucial.

    In conclusion: Ship managers must implement a suitable risk management to avoid being stuck with penalties for non-compliance. The BIMCO is currently focusing on developing a clause for SHIPMAN and another clause for time charter parties, while also considering bunker supply terms and possible clauses related to the pooling mechanism introduced by the regulation.

    The FuelEU Maritime has the potential to significantly impact the shipping industry, even more than EU ETS, and requires stakeholders to take measures to align their contractual frameworks even before the regulation comes into force in 2025.

  • Which compliance technologies are relevant for FuelEU Maritime?

    Renewable and low-carbon fuels directly reducing the GHG intensity of the energy used

    • Onshore power supply in ports
    • Wind and solar systems like kite-sail systems, rig-sail systems or solar-sail systems
    • Auxiliary/modular power units – low-carbon fuel/ hydrogen fuel cells for zero-emissions at berth
    • Advanced multi-fuel engines/ fuel cells with technologies for methane slip mitigation
    • NOT YET: Onboard Carbon Capture and Storage (OCCS) is not yet recognized as an option for FuelEU compliance but may be considered in the future

  • What are the next steps and compliance requirements for ISM companies/ DoC holders?

    The responsible party is in charge for comprehensive monitoring and reporting, which are the basis for compliance balance calculations, and responsible for the payment of penalties.

    Monitoring and reporting are based on MRV approach, with some additional data requirements and processes.

    • FuelEU rules require shipping companies to submit a monitoring plan by the end of August 2024 to authorized verifiers (for example DNV) for assessment for each of their ships, communicating their chosen method to monitor and report the amount, type and emission factor of energy used on board. Most of the class societies are among the accredited verifiers for both EU ETS and FuelEU. These monitoring plans must be uploaded to the FuelEU Database by the verifier for every ship potentially calling at the EU in 2025. For ships for which it was not yet foreseeable that they would call at the EU, a plan must be submitted to the verifier no later than 2 months after the ship’s first call at an EU port.
    • From 1 January 2025, the responsible company will be required to start recording key data related to FuelEU Maritime defined in the monitoring plan. Because reporting will be carried out on an annual basis, a FuelEU Report individual to each ship will be required to be submitted. The first to be submitted to the verifier on 31 January 2026.
    • Until 31 March 2026, the verifier records the FuelEU Report, verification report and compliance balance into the FuelEU Database. Following this, the responsible company declares for each vessel whether it will bank, borrow or pool the vessel with other vessels. This must be approved by the verifier.
    • Until 1 June 2026, the administering State must inform the responsible company for each vessel with a compliance deficit of the responsibility to pay the FuelEU penalty. Payment must be performed by the end of June 2026. After payment or in case of no compliance deficits, a “FuelEU DoC” will be issued for the vessel.

  • What is the FuelEU DoC and what is it needed for?

    The FuelEU DoC is a compliance document valid for 18 months after the end of the reporting period (effectively 1 year from the day of issue). It is an obligation to hold a valid FuelEU document of compliance. When not holding a valid FuelEU DoC for two or more consecutive reporting periods, the vessel is threatened an expulsion order for EU ports and the detention in its home port, if it’s in the EU.

  • What happens in the event of non-compliance with FuelEU Maritime?

    There are severe financial penalties in case of non-compliance with GHG intensity targets. Separate penalties are set in case of non-compliance with additional zero-emissions requirements at berth (currently mainly shore power).

  • What are the options to reduce the GHG intensity penalties?

    Apart from using low-carbon fuels and compliance technologies, the EU has implemented further flexible options.


    There is the potential to offset an entire fleet or pool’s penalties with just a few over-performing vessels. This opportunity arises from the EU’s decision to allow vessels with verified emissions to be pooled together. This can be done regardless of shipping companies, meaning it applies to the company’s fleets or to pools of vessels owned/chartered by several companies.

    The ability to pool emissions penalties and surpluses has important consequences. For example, according to Lloyd’s Register, a pool of ten boxships could avoid around €277m ($301m) in FuelEU Maritime penalties in the five years from 2030 to 2034 if they are joined by a single vessel fuelled with e-methanol, a saving that far outweighs the likely cost of building the methanol-fuelled containership.

    Thus, one low emissions vessel could more than cover the penalties from a whole fleet or pool of conventionally fuelled ships – leaving a tidy profit on top of newbuild costs and the potential for operators or charterers to sell their surplus carbon performance. It is also possible to bank the remaining surplus for the following year.

    Banking and Borrowing

    Flexibility mechanism via banking and borrowing enables surpluses and (small) deficits to be carried over to the next year.

    In the event there is a compliance surplus, the company may bank (save) it to the ship’s compliance balance for the following year. In case of a compliance deficit, the company may borrow from the next reporting period. However, the amount that may be borrowed is limited to 2% of the required GHG intensity energy and is not allowed in multiple continuous periods.

  • What do FuelEU Monitoring Plans and the FuelEU Reports include?

    In accordance with the above mentioned timeline FuelEU Monitoring Plans and FuelEU Reports should include the following information:

    FuelEU Monitoring Plan

    • Ship’s type, name, IMO number, shipowner and information of the shipping company
    • Sources of energy to be used on board while in navigation and at berth
    • Procedures for monitoring the fuel consumption of each fuel type
    • Procedures for monitoring the Well-to-Tank and Tank-to-Wake emission factors of energy to be used
    • Standards and characteristics of OPS or a zero-emission technology
    • Value of the established total electrical power demand of the ship at berth

    The FuelEU Monitoring Plan is required to be updated and assessed by a verifier when changing responsible parties or using new types of fuel, etc.

    FuelEU Report

    • Departure and arrival ports (including date and time)
    • Amount of fuels used while at berth and at sea
    • Amount of electricity supplied to the ship through the OPS

    Based on the information provided in the FuelEU Report, the verifier makes necessary calculations, including:

    • Yearly average GHG intensity of the energy used on board by the ship concerned
    • Amount of the yearly energy from the RFNBO used on board by the ship
    • GHG emissions for which the GHG intensity limit was achieved or not achieved
    • Number of non-compliant port calls for the use of OPS

    In the event of a change in the ship's owner or ship manager during a monitoring year, the previous shipping company should promptly submit the necessary data for the period under its control to the verifier. The verification is then completed by the verifier within one month after the change, and the data is recorded by the verifier in the FuelEU Database. However, the responsibility for compliance with FuelEU Maritime requirements for the entire monitoring period rests with the shipping company that manages the ship as of 31 December of the year.

  • How are the revenues from the FuelEU Maritime used?

    Revenues from the penalty of the FuelEU Maritime will be used to support the introduction and promote the use of renewable and low-carbon fuels in the maritime sector. It is envisaged to encourage the production of more renewable low-carbon fuels in the maritime sector, facilitate the construction of on- shore power supply facilities in ports and support the development, testing and implementation of innovative technologies to achieve significant GHG emission reductions.

  • What measures and services will BSM implement?

    BSM will be FuelEU ready! Development is in full swing with specialised and experienced teams, which already implemented EU ETS, and other emission management requirements.

    BSM is currently developing a FuelEU Simulator and a FuelEU Dashboard, which will be integrated into the PAL ship management software in order to visualize all FuelEU Maritime-relevant data.

    The FuelEU Simulator will serve as a dynamic platform enabling users to input various consumption data related to different fuel types and incorporate relevant factors such as reward factors, e.g. wind-assisted propulsion. The primary function of this tools aims to project and simulate the anticipated GHG intensity, compliance balance, FuelEU penalties for the forthcoming years spanning from 2025 to 2050 with the data entered.

    The core functionality of the FuelEU Dashboard will revolve around calculating expected FuelEU penalties based on the vessel's reported data of fuel for various fuel types under the EU scope. BSM has already made a penalty calculation for the managed fleet for reference. The reported data will be used in penalty assessments for the upcoming years from 2025 to 2050.

    In addition, BSM will offer its customers qualified and reliable guidance and advice on suitable fuels and compliance technology.

Please contact our FuelEU team of experts